Flashcard Interventions to Teach Sight Words and Math Facts


  • Lindsey Loflin Therapy and Beyond
  • Kristina K. Vargo Sam Houston State University
  • Melanie Plaster Conroe Independent School District


flashcard interventions, incremental rehearsal, interspersal techniques, preferences, sight words


Many elementary students struggle with the acquisition of sight words which can hinder development of complex reading skills. Additionally, students who lack fluency with computation of basic math facts may struggle with higher-order math concepts. In this study, we compared the efficacy of two flashcard interventions for teaching sight words and math facts to 4 elementary students. The results showed that Strategic Incremental Rehearsal (SIR) was generally superior to Incremental Rehearsal (IR) in that more targets were mastered. We assessed student preference for the flashcard interventions and found that 2 students showed preference for each of the flashcard interventions. In addition, we evaluated social validity of the flashcard procedures with 6 teachers from the students’ school, and all rated both interventions favorably

Author Biography

  • Kristina K. Vargo, Sam Houston State University

    Dr. Kristina Vargo is an Associate Professor of Special Education at Sam Houston State University. Dr. Vargo is also a Board-Certified Behavior Analyst-Doctoral (BCBA-D) and a Licensed Behavior Analyst in the state of Texas. She earned her M.S. in Behavior Analysis and Therapy, and her Ph.D. in Rehabilitation, both from Southern Illinois University-Carbondale. Dr. Vargo teaches courses primarily in the Low Incidence Disabilities and Autism program. Her research interests focus on the application of behavior analysis in educational settings. Kristina K. Vargo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7868-0550